There are a variety of different types of diabetes, and each one requires a different type of treatment. In this article, we will discuss the most common types of diabetes in the Philippines, and the different types of diabetes drugs and treatments that are available.
6 common types of diabetes in the Philippines
In summary, here are the 6 types of diabetes in the Philippines: Type one diabetes (insulin dependence), Type two diabetes (insulin resistance), Type three diabetes (brain diabetes), Gestational diabetes (during pregnancy), Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, Double diabetes (combination of type 1 with insulin resistance).
Here are the details of the 6 common types of diabetes in the Philippines.
Type 1 Diabetes: Insulin Dependence
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s own immune system destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This results in a lack of insulin, which can cause severe health problems if not treated. Filipinos with type 1 diabetes must take regular insulin injections to control their blood sugar levels. Type 2 Diabetes: Obesity?
Type 2 diabetes is also an autoimmune disease, but it occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or when the cells that produce insulin become resistant to its effects. This can be caused by obesity, a lack of exercise, or genetics. In people with type 2 diabetes, there is usually also evidence of obesity on examination and testing of other factors that can lead to diabetes such as family history and ethnicity.
Type One diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes, and it is caused by the body’s inability to produce insulin or to use insulin properly. Diabetes medications can help to replace the insulin that the body doesn’t produce, and treatments such as diet and exercise can help to manage the symptoms of type one diabetes.
What are the possible causes of type 1 diabetes in the Philippines?
Type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system attacking the body’s insulin-producing cells. There are a few possible causes of type 1 diabetes. One of these causes is genetic. Another cause is environmental, meaning that exposure to something in the environment can trigger the immune system to attack the cells that make insulin. Some people with type 1 diabetes are also born with a specific gene that makes them more likely to develop this condition. However, not everyone who has type 1 diabetes has this gene. In fact, about half of all people with type 1 diabetes don’t have any known cause for their condition.
What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes among Filipinos?
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes can vary, but may include frequent urination, extreme thirst, hunger, muscle aches and pain, fatigue, and cold flashes. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day to manage their blood sugar levels.
What are the available medical treatments for type 1 diabetes?
There are several types of diabetes, but the most common among Filipinos is type 1.
In type 1 diabetes, the body cannot produce insulin, a hormone that allows glucose to be used by the cells in the body for energy. Treatment typically involves a combination of insulin injections and other medicines to help manage blood sugar levels. If left untreated, type 1 diabetes can lead to serious health problems such as blindness, kidney failure, and heart disease.
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not function properly, so the body cannot produce enough insulin. Filipinos with type 1 diabetes must take insulin injections to control their blood sugar.
Type 2 Diabetes: Insulin Resistance
Type Two diabetes is also the most common form of diabetes in the Philippines, and it is caused by the body’s inability to produce enough insulin. Diabetes medications can help to replace the insulin that the body doesn’t produce, and treatments such as diet and exercise can help to manage the symptoms of type two diabetes.
Filipinos with type 2 diabetes often have high blood sugar levels that can damage arteries and other organs. The most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes are increased thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, and fatigue. In many cases, these symptoms may be the result of poor blood glucose control rather than type 2 diabetes itself. Many people with type 2 diabetes also have features of the syndrome known as insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a problem with the body’s ability to use insulin effectively. This can lead to increased blood sugar levels and health problems related to obesity and heart disease.
Type 2 diabetes is a common disease among Filipinos, but it is caused by problems with how the body handles glucose (such as obesity or lack of exercise). In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces less insulin than it should. This can make it difficult to control blood sugar levels and can lead to weight gain and other health problems. There are many different treatments available for both types of diabetes, so each person’s needs will vary.
What are the possible causes of Type 2 diabetes in the Philippines?
There is no one-size-fits-all answer to this question, as the cause of type 2 diabetes among Pinoys can differ from person to person.
However, some factors that may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes include genetics, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors.
Type 2 diabetes is typically caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors among Filipinos. Some of the most common risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes include: being overweight or obese, having high blood pressure, being sedentary (less than 30 minutes per day of moderate-intensity activity), and having a history of heart disease or stroke.
In addition, people with type 2 diabetes are more likely to have a family history of the condition.
What are the symptoms of Type 2 diabetes among Pinoys?
Type 2 diabetes is an umbrella term that refers to any form of diabetes mellitus, a group of diseases in which the body cannot produce or use insulin. Type 2 diabetes results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors that damage the pancreas’ ability to produce insulin.
The most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes among Filipinos are increased thirst and urination, weight gain, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating. Symptoms can vary greatly from person to person; therefore it is important for Pinoys to consult with their Filipino doctor about their specific situation.
What are the available medical treatments for Type 2 diabetes?
There are a variety of treatments available for type 2 diabetes, which can be divided into oral and injectable medications. Oral medications include pills, shots, or diet products that have to be taken regularly. Injectable medications are given directly into the bloodstream through a shot or a pump. They work by lowering blood sugar levels in the body. Some common injectable medications include insulin, glipizide (a type of oral medication), and metformin (an oral medication used to treat type 2 diabetes).
There are also several different types of surgery that can be performed to help people with type 2 diabetes control their blood sugar levels. These surgeries include gastric bypass surgery (which reduces the size of the stomach), bariatric surgery (which helps people lose weight and reduce their chances of developing type 2 diabetes), and diabetic foot ulcers that can be treated with podiatric surgery.
Type 3 Diabetes: Brain Diabetes
Type 3 diabetes is a serious chronic disease that affects the body’s ability to use insulin. The pancreas produces insulin, but in people with type 3 diabetes, the body does not respond properly to the insulin it produces. This can lead to high blood sugar levels and a range of health problems. Some of the most common are foot ulcers, blindness, heart disease, and kidney failure.
There is also a form of type 3 diabetes called brain diabetes. This happens when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin because of damage to the pancreas or cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Brain diabetes can lead to serious problems such as seizures and dementia. There is no cure for brain diabetes, but there are treatments that can help manage symptoms.
Type 3 diabetes is a rare form of diabetes in the Philippines that affects the brain and spinal cord. It is usually caused by a combination of genes and lifestyle factors (such as obesity). People with type 3 diabetes often have problems with their vision, hearing, nerves, and muscles. There is no cure for type 3 diabetes but there are treatments available that can help people manage it.
Type three diabetes in the Philippines is an umbrella term that refers to three different types of diabetes. The first type, called juvenile-onset diabetes, is a type of diabetes that typically starts in children and adolescents. The second type, called adult-onset diabetes, starts when someone reaches middle age. The third type, called gestational diabetes, develops during pregnancy.
What are the possible causes of Type 3 diabetes in the Philippines?
Type 3 diabetes in the Philippines is most commonly caused by a combination of genetics and lifestyle factors. Genetics can include your family history of the condition, as well as certain genes that can increase your risk. Lifestyle factors that can increase your risk include obesity, lack of exercise, and a high-fat diet.
Other possible causes of Type 3 diabetes include: having an infection (such as tuberculosis), being pregnant, or having a high blood pressure. If you have Type 3 diabetes, it’s important to get on track with lifestyle changes and treatment plans to help manage the disease and prevent complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness, and amputation.
What are the symptoms of Type 3 diabetes among Filipinos?
Type 3 diabetes in the Philippines is a more advanced form of diabetes that affects the pancreas. Symptoms among Filipinos can include extreme tiredness, increased hunger, and frequent urination. Treatment typically involves medication and/or diet changes. Diabetes can be managed with proper treatment, but it can also lead to health problems such as heart disease and stroke.
What are the available medical treatments for Type 3 diabetes?
There are many different medical treatments for Type 3 diabetes in the Philippines. Some people need to take insulin every day to control their blood sugar levels. Others may need to take oral medications or insulin injections only occasionally. Many people with Type 3 diabetes can manage their blood sugar levels with a combination of therapies.
Gestational Diabetes: During Pregnancy
Gestational diabetes is a condition that can develop in women during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is usually treated with diet and exercise, but it can also lead to complications in the baby.
Gestational diabetes is a condition that develops during pregnancy, and it is caused by the body’s inability to produce enough insulin. Diabetes medications can help to replace the insulin that the body doesn’t produce, and treatments such as diet and exercise can help to manage the symptoms of gestational diabetes.
What are the possible causes of gestational diabetes in the Philippines?
There are many possible causes of gestational diabetes among pregnant Filipinas, but typically it is caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Some of the environmental factors that can contribute to gestational diabetes include: being overweight or obese, having a family history of the condition, eating a high-carbohydrate diet, and being exposed to air pollution. Genetics can also play a role in developing gestational diabetes, as can certain medications and medical conditions. Pinays who are pregnant and have any signs or symptoms of gestational diabetes, please see your Filipino doctor for further evaluation.
What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes among Filipinos?
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which blood sugar levels are high during pregnancy. Symptoms of gestational diabetes include increased thirst, urination, and appetite; fatigue; and excessive weight gain. If left untreated, gestational diabetes can lead to serious health problems for both the mother and baby. Filipinos are more likely than other people to develop gestational diabetes, partly because of our diets and lifestyle habits.
What are the available medical treatments for gestational diabetes in the Philippines?
There are a few available medical treatments for gestational diabetes in the Philippines. These include diet and lifestyle changes, medication, and surgery. Diet and lifestyle changes are the most common type of treatment for gestational diabetes, and they usually work well. Medication can help control blood sugar levels in people with gestational diabetes, but it doesn’t always work well. Surgery is sometimes needed to control blood sugar levels in people with gestational diabetes.
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA)
A kind of autoimmune diabetes that progresses gradually is latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). LADA develops when your pancreas stops making enough insulin, possibly as a result of some sort of “insult” that gradually harms the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, similar to the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes. With LADA, however, you frequently won’t need insulin for several months to years following your diagnosis, in contrast to type 1 diabetes.
Latent autoimmune diabetes in Filipino adults, which often develops after age 30, is now recognized as a type of Type 1 diabetes with an early development that resembles insulin-resistant Type 2 diabetes.
LADA in the Philippines is linked to the same genetic and immunological characteristics as Type 1 diabetes with starts in childhood. It also shares some genetic characteristics with Type 2 diabetes, which begs the question of whether there is genetic heterogeneity that predisposes to this form of the illness.
Due to an autoimmune condition that gradually destroys the pancreas’ insulin-making cells, LADA occurs when the pancreas of a Pinoy patient stops producing enough insulin. As the body loses its capacity to manufacture enough of the hormone, insulin shots will eventually be required for treatment in addition to diet, exercise, and oral medications.
LADA among Filipino patients, also known as type 1.5 diabetes, is thought to be a subtype of type 1 diabetes by many experts, although other researchers do not consider it to be a separate entity. According to Filipino medical researchers, type 1 and type 2 diabetes are on a continuum, with LADA falling in the middle.
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults affects those over the age of 30. Filipinos with LADA are frequently misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes because they are older when symptoms first appear than is common for someone with type 1 diabetes and because at first their pancreases still generate some insulin.
What are the possible causes of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults in the Philippines?
There is no one cause for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), which is a type of diabetes that develops over time without any known prior health problem. LADA in the Philippines is thought to be caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Some risk factors for LADA include being female, having a family history of the disease, being overweight or obese, having type 2 diabetes, and having an autoimmune disorder.
LADA typically affects Filipinos over the age of 30 but can occur at any age. In most cases, patients do not experience symptoms until they have developed chronic blood sugar levels above 250 mg/dL (10 mmol/L). Symptoms can include extreme fatigue, weight loss or gain, poor blood sugar control, and vision problems. If left untreated, LADA can lead to permanent damage to the pancreas and other organs.
What are the symptoms of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults among Filipinos?
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a type of diabetes that can go undetected for years. The symptoms of LADA can vary, but they generally include:
- weight loss
- frequent urination
- nausea and vomiting
- inconsistent blood sugar levels
What are the available medical treatments for Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults?
There are a number of medical treatments available for Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults in the Philipines. These treatments can include medication, stem cell therapy, and/or surgery. Medication can be taken orally or injected into the body. Stem cell therapy can be used to help the body produce its own insulin. Surgery may be necessary to remove the pancreas or other organs like the liver that may be causing diabetes.
Double Diabetes: Type 1.5
When a Filipino with type 1 diabetes develops insulin resistance, a crucial component of type 2 diabetes, this is referred to as double diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes will always be present in a Filipino patient with double diabetes, but the consequences of insulin resistance can be substantially mitigated.
Although type 1 diabetes is not itself caused by obesity, it is the most common cause of insulin resistance.
Obesity and insulin resistance are conditions that can affect Pinoys with type 1 diabetes just as much as anyone else.
In another word, when a Filipino with type 1 diabetes develops a resistance to their insulin prescription, much like Pinoys with type 2 diabetes, this is known as double diabetes. The body stops responding to the same quantity of insulin being delivered, and the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to support normal metabolism.
Unfortunately, Filipino children with Type 1.5 who are overweight or obese are more likely to develop this illness. According to Filipino Endocrinologists, Type 1 diabetics, especially those with a family history of Type 2, need to embrace fitness and muscle-building workouts and make positive lifestyle adjustments to lower their risk of complications from double diabetes.
What are the possible causes of double diabetes in the Philippines?
There are many causes of double diabetes, which can be broken down into genetic and environmental factors. Genetic causes can include inherited traits from your parents or other relatives, as well as certain diseases. Environmental factors include lifestyle choices (such as eating a lot of sugar or processed foods), exposure to toxins, and infections.
Double diabetes is relatively rare in the Philippines, but it can occur in any population. It’s more common in people who are over 60 years old Filipino or have a family history of the condition, and it tends to run in families. Double diabetes in the Philippines is also more common among Pinoys who have type II diabetes than type I diabetes.
What are the symptoms of double diabetes (diabetes 1.5) among Pinoys?
Symptoms of this form of diabetes include having high blood sugar levels, feeling tired, having problems with your vision or kidney function, and having to take oral medications to control your blood sugar levels.
What are the available medical treatments for double diabetes?
There are a variety of medical treatments available for people with diabetes, and each person’s specific needs will vary. Some common treatments include:
- Oral medications, such as metformin or sulfonylureas
- Insulin injections
- Dialysis or a kidney transplant in cases of renal failure
- Surgery to remove the pancreas or bypass the digestive system
Statistics of Diabetes in the Philippines
In the Philippines, diabetes and its consequences are a leading cause of illness and mortality.
From 3.4 million cases in 2010 to 3.7 million cases in 2017, the Philippines now has a higher prevalence of diabetes.
Through programs like its non-communicable illness prevention and control strategy, the government has developed methods to curb this rise.
On the financial toll of diabetes, there is, however, little evidence. By closing this gap, policymakers may be better able to plan resources for pertinent actions and make educated judgments.
Estimating the direct medical costs related to type 2 diabetes mellitus is the main goal of the current investigation (T2DM).
The Cost of Diabetes Treatment in the Philippines.
How much do Filipinos spend on diabetes treatment and maintenance?
Patients in low- and middle-income nations are severely impacted by the financial burden of diabetes. Complications may also raise medical costs, which have a significant impact on the direct costs of diabetes to the health system.
According to data from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the average cost of treatment and maintenance for a Filipino diabetic patient grew from $61 US dollars in 2010 to $234 US dollars in 2017, showing an increasing financial impact on Filipino families with diabetic conditions.
However, reliable cost information on diabetes and its comorbidities is still lacking and dispersed. In a study conducted in 2008 with 359 participants chosen from various levels of healthcare settings, average expenditures of a few direct medical and indirect cost components were revealed. The cost of oral drugs, insulin, and travel was found to be $13 US dollars per month, $20 USD dollars per month, and $1 US dollar each visit, respectively. The research’s scope did not include other elements of direct medical costs, such as laboratory tests and treatments.
The Department of Health listed the selling prices of insulin in the Philippines as follows:
- PHP 500 for biphasic isophane human insulin 70/30 with (70% isophane suspension + 30% soluble insulin) and 100 IU/ml, 10 ml vial
- PHP 500 for regular insulin, 100 IU/mL, 10 mL vial 10 mL
- PHP 500 for isophane insulin human, 100 IU/mL, 10 mL vial
In the Philippines, healthcare and financing are dispersed and diverse. Multiple morbidities and a dearth of trustworthy, readily accessible data sources could make it difficult to accurately estimate the impact of chronic diseases. The present toolkit of costing approaches is also restricted to inpatient costs derived from the PhilHealth database or infectious disease costs, and may not be appropriate for calculating the burden of chronic diseases.
In order to accurately estimate the direct medical expenditures of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Philippines, this study’s approach attempts to provide details on the methodology.
Foods to eat and avoid for Filipino diabetic patients
There are certain foods that Filipino diabetic patients should avoid. These include processed foods, sugary drinks, and high-fat foods. Instead, people with type diabetes should focus on eating organic and healthy Filipino foods such as fruits and vegetables, grains like bread and cereals, low-fat dairy products, and protein sources such as fish or chicken.
What food can a diabetic Filipino eat?
There are many different types of diabetes, each with its own set of dietary restrictions. However, all diabetics should follow a healthy diet that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and lean protein. Some foods that are typically safe for diabetics to eat include:
- Fruits: Oranges, melon, berries, apples, bananas, and grapes.
- Vegetables: Asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower rice pilaf, celery sticks/slices.
- Whole grains: Brown rice; quinoa; oatmeal; Ezekiel bread.
What food should a Filipino diabetic avoid?
There are many foods that can cause problems for people with diabetes, as they can increase blood sugar levels. Some of the most common foods to avoid for Filipinos with diabetes include:
- Sugary drinks: sodas, milk tea, instant juice, instant ice tea, and other sweet drinks
- Processed foods: french fries, fried dishes, canned meat, fruits and vegetables with enormous sodium; veggies cooked with lots of added butter, cheese, or sauce; ice cream, whole milk.
- High-fat foods: say goodbye to crispy pata and oily fried chicken. Anything fried, oily, and with trans fat in it.
- Large amounts of bread and pasta: the key here is moderation.
It is important to keep a close eye on your blood sugar levels to make sure you are eating healthy food that will help manage your diabetes.
Tests and screening available for patients with diabetes in the Philippines
There are a variety of diabetes tests and screenings available to help Filipino doctors diagnose and track the progress of diabetes in the Philippines. Some common tests include blood glucose monitoring, urine testing, and insulin sensitivity testing. Screening for diabetes can also include blood pressure, cholesterol, and thyroid measurements. If any of these tests show signs of being out of whack, then a doctor may recommend additional testing or screening to determine the cause of diabetes.
Doctors for Diabetes: How to select the right endocrinologist in the Philippines?
There are a variety of types of diabetes, each with its own unique set of symptoms and complications. If a Pinoy patient is not sure which type they have, please visit the nearest medical center or clinic and look for the best diabetes doctor for your needs. Here are some things to keep in mind when choosing the best endocrinologist in the Philippines:
Experience and Training in Diabetes Care
The best endocrinologists in the Philippines have years of experience treating diabetes patients and know how to manage all the different aspects of the disease. They will also have attended specialized training in diabetes management, including blood sugar control techniques and insulin therapy.
Personalized Approach to Diabetes Care
Each Filipino patient is unique, with different needs for medication, diet, exercise, and other treatments. Your doctor will take into account all your medical history and current health conditions when making recommendations.
Commitment to Quality Diabetes Care
Filipino endocrinologists who are qualified to treat diabetes also have a commitment to providing the highest-quality care possible. They will work with you to identify any potential problems and work together to find solutions.
Availability and Location
Most Filipino endocrinologists are located in major cities such as Metro Manila, Cebu, Bacolod, Davao, Laguna, Bulacan, Rizal, Cavite, and Batangas. If you’re looking for the best endocrinologist in the Philippines, your best bet is to contact your local hospital or barangay health center and ask about their referral list.
If you’re having difficulty managing your diabetes, don’t wait – seek out a medical doctor who can help you get on track.
List of Hospitals that Specializes in Diabetes in the Philippines
List of Hospitals in Metro Manila – Endocrinologist Diabetes Doctor Specialization
- Asian Hospital and Medical Center
- Cardinal Santos Medical Center
- Makati Medical Center
- Manila Doctors Hospital
- Manilamed (Medical Center Manila)
- Medical Center Paranaque
- Perpetual Help Medical Center
- Philippine General Hospital (PGH)
- St. Luke’s Medical Center
- The Medical City
- UST Hospital
- World Citi Medical Center
List of Hospitals in Laguna – Endocrinologist Diabetes Doctor Specialization
- QualiMed Hospital – Sta. Rosa
- Unihealth-Southwoods Hospital and Medical Center (USHMC)
- Westlake Medical Center
List of Hospitals in Batangas – Endocrinologist Diabetes Doctor Specialization
- Batangas Medical Center
- Mary Mediatrix Medical Center
- United Doctors of St. Camillus De Lellis Hospital
List of Hospitals in Cavite – Endocrinologist Diabetes Doctor Specialization
- De La Salle University Medical Center
- Southeast Asian Medical Center (SAMC)
- St. Dominic Medical Center
List of Hospitals in Bulacan – Endocrinologist Diabetes Doctor Specialization
Cebu Diabetes Hospitals – Endocrinologist Diabetes Doctor Specialization
- Cebu City Medical Center
- Cebu Doctors’ University Hospital
- Cebu North General Hospital
- Chong Hua Hospital
- Perpetual Soccour Hospital
- Perpetual Succour Hospital
- St. Anthony Mother and Child (SAMCH)
- Vicente Sotto Memorial Medical Center
List of Hospitals in Davao – Endocrinologist Diabetes Doctor Specialization
List of Hospitals in Bacolod – Endocrinologist Diabetes Doctor Specialization
List of Hospitals in Palawan – Endocrinologist Diabetes Doctor Specialization
List of Diabetes Organizations in the Philippines
Here are the list of organizations and associations that are supporting the causes of diabetes in the Philippines.
- Association Of Diabetes Nurse Educators.
- Department of Health
- Diabetes PH
- Philippine Center for Diabetes Education Foundation
- Philippine College of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Conclusion: Common Types of Diabetes in the Philippines
There are many types of diabetes, but the most common in the Philippines is type 2. Diabetes is a disorder of the body’s ability to use glucose effectively. Glucose is a type of sugar that is needed for energy. When glucose isn’t used properly, it can lead to diabetes. There are many factors that can contribute to diabetes among Pinoy patients, including genetics and lifestyle choices. If left untreated, diabetes can lead to serious health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and blindness. The best way for Filipinos to prevent diabetes is by getting screened for the condition and managing their symptoms using treatment plans tailored to their specific needs.
Sources: Diabetes in the Philippines
- Harvard Medical School – Diabetes
- Harvard School of Public Health – The Nutrition Source
- Stanford Health Care – Diabetes
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – What is diabetes?
- IDF – What is diabetes
- Cleveland Clinic – Diabetes: Types, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Tests, Treatments
- Diabetes Org – Types of diabetes
- Mayo Clinic – Diabetes – Symptoms and causes
- NIDDK – What is Diabetes?
- University of California – Types Of Diabetes
- BMJ Journals – Estimating direct medical costs of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Philippines: a protocol
- Department of Health – Prevent Diabetes! Know Your Risk
- The Lancet – Access to insulin and diabetes care in the Philippines
- PubMed – Diabetes Care in the Philippines
- ScienceDirect – Diabetes Care in the Philippines
- Philippine News Agency – Diabetes among top killer diseases in PH
- IDF Diabetes Atlas – Philippines Diabetes report 2000 — 2045